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Keystone XL: Decision. Discussion. Potential Implication

Since this is my first blog, I was initially unsure what topic I should talk about.  However, by looking at all the top headlines and burning issues, I very quickly figured that I should begin with the Keystone XL pipeline project.

The Canadian oil sands industry has recently received a great deal of media attention in connection with the Keystone XL pipeline project – a project which is critical to future expansion of this industry.  The Keystone XL, a 2,763-kilometre long pipeline project, when complete, would deliver up to 830,000 barrels a day of crude from the oil sands in Canada and the northern U.S. to the Gulf Coast.
While some local residents are worried about the possibility of a pipeline leak – this pipeline will pass through an environmentally sensitive area in Nebraska – many environmentalists (including some celebrities) see opposing the pipeline project as an opportunity to slow oil sands development overall.  Despite clear advantages to the U.S. in terms of job creation and other economic benefits, planned construction of the pipeline faced such strong opposition by environmental groups that U.S. president Barack Obama announced last week that he will not make a final decision on its construction until after the November 2012 elections.
TransCanada, an owner of the $7 billion pipeline project, agreed to reroute the pipeline and expressed confidence that it will be able to address environmental concerns raised by opponents. However, oil sands proponents believe that, if the Keystone pipeline project doesn’t proceed, major impacts on the oil industry can be offset by another project (Enbridge’s Northern Gateway Project – a new twin pipeline project running from near Edmonton, Alberta, to a new marine terminal in Kitimat, British Columbia), which will help solve the problem of marketing Canadian oil.
There are, however, many reasons for the caution.  The Keystone XL project faces a “dirty oil” challenge and the Gateway pipeline project could face similar challenges, including, but not limited to, aboriginal rights issues.  While it is beyond anyone’s capacity at this stage to predict what’s going to happen, the recent decision to defer the Keystone XL pipeline project is definitely not good news for both the U.S. and Canada.
Currently, the U.S. is the only market for Canadian oil, including products from the oil sands.  Canada is by far the largest exporter of crude oil to the U.S. In 2010, Canada exported almost 2 MBPD (million barrels per day) of oil to Americans. Of this volume, 1.8 MBPD came from Western Canada and 1.1 MBPD of that came from the oil sands of Alberta.  By 2035, Canadian oil sands production is expected to rise two to four times from its current production level.  Canada and the U.S. are two of the most important stakeholders in the Keystone project and are those that have the most to gain and lose. Canada and the U.S. both need to maximize profits from the oil sands, since, economically, both countries could use a boost from the energy sector (a main driver for growth) to help recover from the recession.
The U.S. is the most natural market for oil sand products.  Pipelined oil can reach the U.S. quickly and at low cost and the U.S. has experience in processing oil sands products. But existing pipeline capacity is already very tight.  If the oil sands are not given appropriate access to markets via critical projects like Keystone XL, oil sands expansion will be slower and more painful, a possibility that has broad economic, social and political ramifications in North America and the world.  If this happens, environmentalists should not celebrate, because the needed oil will just come from elsewhere, and will likely be dirtier, more expensive, its supply less reliable, or all of these.
In 2010, U.S. import of foreign oil was about 9 MBPD (U.S. oil demand in total was about 19 MBPD, including biofuels) and Canada supplied about 1.8 MBPD of that.  If the U.S. decides to displace Canadian oil from their market, it will not reduce their total overall demand for oil but simply ensure that it will be met from other sources – Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Mexico or Nigeria.  For example, by displacing 2 MBPD of Canadian oil, the U.S. could put an additional $58 billion dollars (or more) every single year into the pockets of Saudi Arabia and other counties – assuming a price of U.S. $80/bbl of oil.  $58 billion dollars per year is a lot of money to empower countries whose interests often conflict with the U.S.
We are living in a world with a very tight oil supply-demand relationship.  The supply of conventional oil is declining and unconventional crude oil is now beginning to supplement this supply.  The U.S. Energy Information Agency (EIA) estimates that global oil production from unconventional sources will rise from 4% of the total in 2010 to 13% by 2035.  They estimate that, among all sources of unconventional oil, Canadian oil sands have the greatest potential to complement conventional crude oil, with production expected to increase from 1.5 MBPD in 2010 to 5 MBPD in 2035.  With the threat of a double-dip recession looming over world economies, getting a grip on rising oil prices is a particularly pressing need. To do this we need to increase, not decrease, the world’s oil supply.
The oil sands will play a very important role in moderating world oil prices if production is allowed to grow as per expectations.  If growth is prevented, global implications will be very severe. Take, for example, the case of Greece – one of the countries hardest hit by the 2008 financial crisis. In order to handle its debt obligation, Greece is facing massive tax increases and spending cuts. Thousands of people are now out of work and facing hardship, businesses are closing down and citizens, including immigrants, are leaving the country to settle somewhere else.  The most dramatic sign of Greece’s economic pain, however, is the surge in suicides experienced earlier this year. About 40% more Greeks killed themselves in the first five months of this year than in the same period last year, according to Greece’s health ministry.  This fact is disturbing.  While economic crises and high oil prices don’t significantly impact celebrities, high oil prices are believed to be one of the root causes of the 2008 economic meltdown, a financial crisis that has taken a significant toll on people’s mental health.
The relationship between the U.S. and Canada is among the closest and most extensive in the world.  About 300,000 people cross the shared border every day. According to the U.S. department of State, the U.S. and Canada trade the equivalent of $1.6 billion a day in goods – and energy is a big part of that trade relationship. According to CERI (Canadian Energy Research Institute), if Keystone XL and other oil sands projects proceed as planned, the impact on U.S. GDP from 2010-2020 is estimated at CAD $134 billion.  By 2020, U.S. employment totals related to this project are expected to grow from 80,000 jobs to 179,000.
Despite these benefits, opposition to the oil sands continues, mainly because of a perception that the industry is not doing enough to reduce its environmental footprint.  Among all the challenges that this industry faces, the most visible and controversial is the emission of green house gases (GHG) and their impact on climate change.  According to the IHS CERA (Cambridge Energy Research Associates),  Canadian oil sands produce only 5 to 15% more GHG emissions than conventional crude oil and are responsible for less than 0.1 % of the world’s total GHG emissions.  However, as oil sands production increases, the overall environmental impact, including GHG emissions, will increase.
To tackle this problem, technological advancement is necessary and the industry is spending billions of dollars to make it happen. For instance, Shell’s Quest Project will use CSS (Carbon Storage and Sequestration) technology to capture its GHG emissions and pipe them underground. Suncor is spending $1.2 billion this year to improve tailings management and Syncrude is spending $1.6 billion on its desulphurization units.
According to a growing number of environmentalists and activists, we cannot continue to rely on oil because of its GHG emissions and because of the fact that we will run out of oil soon anyway.  They say we should replace oil with renewable energy sources.  This is our long term goal but, unfortunately, the world’s reliance on oil isn’t just a political problem, it’s a technological problem.  There is simply no alternative to power the transport sector. With the technology available today, trucks, ships and planes cannot be powered by batteries, solar or wind power.  There is no realistic substitute for oil now and there is no guarantee that we will find one in the next few decades.
It is often argued by environmental groups that energy from renewable sources is relatively expensive because oil companies benefit from massive subsidies not available to renewables.  While this was true in the past, it has not been the case for years. Consider the U.S. case.  According to the U.S. Department of Energy, in 2010 wind energy producers received 42% of all federal subsidies for electricity production while only producing 2.3% of all electricity generated.  Coal received 10% of these subsidies and produced 44.9%. Natural gas and oil received 3.6% of these subsidies and produced 25%.  Nuclear received 19.8% of these subsidies and produced 19.6% of electricity generated.  Renewables receive a greater share of federal dollars than any other single source of energy and this share of total energy funding, which is close to 40%, is considerable.  Particularly if we keep in mind that they only provide 8% of total power generated.  The point is, political mandates can force an increase in the share of renewables in the energy mix, but they do not have the power to make them cheap, at least not in the short and medium term. More modest (and realistic) goals will have virtually no impact on oil demand and ambitious renewable projects are very likely to fail, or could negatively impact the already difficult post-recession economic recovery.
The world is searching for the right balance between finding a continuous supply of oil to secure our energy future and maintain high living standards, while at the same time protecting the environment – particularly in the face of climate change concerns.  Achieving the right balance is a very difficult task and often involves complex trade-offs and compromises.  But, among all the choices we have today, clearly Canadian oil is our best hope to bridge the gap between now and a full transition to renewable energy in the future.   The future of the oil sands development is of great importance to the economy of Canada, and the U.S. and it has global implications as well.
The pipeline projects such as Keystone XL has a very important role to play in ensuring oil sands growth by removing marketing constraints.  There is too much at stake – for Canada, the U.S. and the rest of the world. Let us hope that policy and decision makers on both sides of the border will take a balanced approach and negotiate a deal which will allow the expansion of oil sands in a responsible manner.
(Note: Above opinions are my own and not of Suncor Energy Inc.)

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Comments ( 19 )

  • Anonymous says:

    >A rare, very well written blog post! Thanks for sharing this information

  • Craig says:

    >Very insightful posting. Let's hope that the postponement of the Keystone XL decision doesn't have too great of an effect on the hard working employees in the Oil Sands.

    On another point, these new environmental technologies that you mentioned such as CSS look promising. Perhaps a future post could look at these in more detail.

  • Saba says:

    >The facts are very well brought together. I believe the best strategy Canada could use is to promote more projects similar to (Enbridge’s Northern Gateway Project). Opening up the gates to world market would bring more attention, attraction, and competition for Canadian Oil Sands. This would also contribute to BC's economy a lot.

  • Sudhir says:

    >Well written and quite insightful.
    Enjoyed reading it. Wish you have covered the netback that Canadian bitumen would have received with or without Keystone XL, also what impact some Canadian SAGD projects would have in terms of proceeding ahead.

  • Mainak says:

    >I think that except for the aviation industry, it is conceivable for the rest of the transportation sector to emancipate itself from its reliance on oil. Compressed natural gas is being increasingly used in the US for frieght or heavy ground transportation. Because its cleaner burning, and also because US has vast natural gas reserves, there might be a strong political will – escpecially at times of high crude price or hightening climate change concerns-to develop the infrastructure for a CNG based economy, which also includes powering marine vessels. For small vehicles/light ground transportation, we can expect economies of scale and advancements in battery technology to cause a shift to electrically powered vehicles.

    If we do see such technolgical shifts, then it will be interesting to see whether the residual demand from the aviation and polymer industries will be enough to sustain oil prices at a profitable level for the oil sands industry…

  • Shauna says:

    >A very well written blog with detailed facts and thorough explanations. The reality is simple, the Keystone XL Project will take place whether or not environmentalists approve. This is because the US is in such a high demand of oil that it doesn't matter where the oil comes from, either the Keystone Project or another similar one taking another route from Canada to the refineries in US. This is a project based on need, and desperate need, not want, hence it only makes sense to collaborate and start this project as its benefits out-weight the concerns. Very excited to read your book when it comes out!

  • Sujit says:

    >Great write up Sanjay.

    It depends on who you want to lobby the Oilsands….if you work and live in Alberta – yes, we want the Oilsands to continue making all those production BPD……and if you don't work or live in Alberta then you would want alternative fuel like Bio; electric; wind…….All the best for your new book!

  • Hitesh says:

    >Nice presentation. Canadian oil industry will explore ways to open up trade with energy hungry nations such as China and India. This would also enable it to make higher profits per barrel by virtue of absence of NAFTA with these countries. Alternatively, it could also consider adding new refineries/petrochemical units/other downstream industries only to get a higher return on the sales of finished products vs. crude oil. The enterprenurial possibilities are endless and would attract professionals across the globe to work in these organization.

  • Trevor says:

    >Your analysis on renewables and subsidies is just perfect! I wish the people are aware of it.

  • Shanthi Velan says:

    >Sanjay, Excellent review of the keystone pipeline and it's potential impact on Canada and US. Unfortunately, majority of the people go by anecdotal evidence than by scientific evidence or facts. Hopefully the policy makers do the right thing.

  • Anonymous says:

    >Good report.
    There is no other industry in the history of mankind that has been subjected to so many distortions and exaggerations and downright malevolence as the oilsands. Activists like CBC, NIKIFORUK in Calgary, MARSDEN in Montreal and HUDEMA in Edmonton are criminal architects of lies and distortions. Your report is EXCELLENT.

  • Ashish Madan says:

    >Hi Sanjay, Very interesting read. Enjoyed this article, you have presented the facts very systematically and logically. While there is opposition to this project, there is also a growing support. I found your comments on Renewable energy sources very insightful. I hope the policy makers go beyond the knee jerk reactions and take an informed decision keeping the long term interests of US and Canadian people in mind.

    Look forward to your future blogs. All the best for your book!

  • Anonymous says:

    >Sanjay, your blog is entitled "Energy Security and Environmental Sustainability"… however, the discussion is entirely centred on Energy Security.
     
    Yes, there is certainly a demand for a steady oil supply and you have definitely addressed this discussion in length.
     
    However, how about the associated environmental impacts of pipeline extensions?  Why is there no mention of the environmental risks associated with pipeline/terminals?  Or with the Kitimat example, the difficult task of navigating supertankers through highly sensitive watersheds and narrow fjords?  Where are your recommendations for sustainably achieving such a balance?

  • Abraham Doe says:

    >Thank you for the research and insight Sanjay.

    As an International Business Major in graduate school, an American, a capitalist, a former college instructor in economics (17 years) and a consultant in Canadian Oil Sands (+ years) – and a student of American politics – I believe President Obama will support the Keystone XL project.

    Politics being how they are enacted in the United States, Obama is being refreshingly honest to say as president he needs to exclude this and other 'hot potato(e)s' from the 2012 election.

    I believe he and each Republic candidate would support the project – just not before the election. Environmental concerns are legitimate at any time and not without merit given some national and international mishaps of significant proportions over the last 50 years.

    Notwithstanding, North American and international economic stimulus in any reasonable form – and this would be reasonable – is welcome by any logical political leader. I think the benefits to be reaped by the Keystone project unfortunately have been made to wait for the powerful, steaming locomotive of American Presidential politics to pass over the tracks, but the project WILL proceed right after the train passes.

    I personally hope Canada refrains from the alternative to the Keystone project through BC and simply waits for the politically charged atmosphere in Washington to dissipate in 11 months.

  • Michael says:

    >Hi Snajey,

    This is an excellent article. You have put together the facts and presented your argument logically.

    Good job.

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    You’ve some genuine insight. Why not hold some sort of contest for the readers?

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